Present Perfect tense is used for the completed or recently completed actions.
When forming the Present Perfect, a distinction is made between regular and irregular verbs. For irregular verbs, the third verb form is used. For regular verbs, the infinitive (basic form of the verb) is added to the verb. In addition, there are several special features, which will be discussed in more detail below.
Structure of present perfect tense
have or has + past participle (3rd verb form for irregular verbs or infinitive ending -ed for regular verbs)
Present perfect tense is formed by Auxiliary verb have / has + the past participle (the third form of the verb)
|Subject||Auxiliary verb||Main verb|
|I /we/ you/ they||have||played||football.|
|I /we/ you/ they||have||not||played||football.|
|Auxiliary verb||Subject||has/ have||Main verb|
|Have||I /we/ you/ they||have||played||football?|
Special features in the formation of Present Perfect
There are some peculiarities in the formation of the Present Perfect that need to be considered.
|If the verb ends in “e”, only “d” is appended||dive> dived|
|If the verb ends with vowel and consonant, the consonant is doubled||travel> traveled|
|If the verb ends with “y”, it becomes “i”||cry> cried|
The uses of the present perfect tense:
Using the Present Perfect
Present Perfect tense is used for actions that are in the past and completed.
- Action has just been completed
We just visited Karachi.
- To describe actions that have happened in the past, without time specification.She has watched the football match
- Action Started in the past and still continue.
Mrs. Kamal has lived here since in 1987.
This Irish pub has Existed since 1930.
- To describe actions that has just been completed. Here, the auxiliary verb the adverb “just” adjusted.
Mr Miller has just called me but I can not remember why.
I have lost my keys. Can you help me to look for them?
Watch out! I have mopped the floor.
Present perfect often occurs in conjunction with the following
yet, since, for; Already, never, so far, before
Signal words in the Present Perfect
Using different signal words, it is possible to find out the correct time form. In Present Perfect, the best known signal words are:
- so far
Other present Tense
- (Simple)Present Indefinite tense
- Present Progressive Tense or Continuous Tense
- Present perfect continuous/ progressive tense