Basic English grammar with pdf

Structure of Sentence

Positive sentences

The basic word order in affirmative sentences in English is

Example: I play football.

The objects we distinguish between an indirect object (indirect object – whom or what) and a direct object (accusative-who or what).

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For the position of the location and time, there is the simple rule: place ahead of time.
The time is normally at the end of a sentence.

“I play football with my friends every day,” so to say “I play football with my friends every day.

The basic word order in questions in the simple present in English is: Do you + verb

Ex: Do you speak English?

So if you want to ask as if someone plays football in general, you do not ask “you play football” but “Do you play football.”

Negative sentences 
The syntax of positive sentences in English is also true for the denial. However, one then uses mostly an auxiliary verb.

I do not play football.

I did not play football.
Conditional sentences

What is referred to casually as if-sentences, often has many other names. Conditionals (conditionals), conditionals, if-then sentences.

There are three types of if-sentences.
Type: If anything happens, I’ll do this or that.
Example: If it rains, I will go home
Type: If something would happen, I would do this or that.
Example: If it rained, I would go home
Type: If something would have happened, I would have done this or that.
Example: If it had rained, I would have gone home

Note: Especially the 2nd Type is always a source of error as in the If part of the sentence appears but the second would not Form of the verb!

“If I won the lottery, I would buy a house”

Use of much – many

Much in used for non-countable things and many with countable.

But there is an easier way:
much to say much.
many many words.

Example: “I have not much time,” so to say “I do not have much time”.

Used to – would 

In English, there are two ways to express inter Alia, that one has done something habitually in the past. Once with ‘used to’ and once with ‘would’.

Example: I used to play a lot of football when i was young.
– When I was young I played a lot of football.

Explanation: ‘used to’ expresses merely that some people used regularly did what no longer does today.

Example: We would play football every day when we were young.
– When we were young, we played football every day.

Explanation: This use of ‘would’ often confused because the more frequent meaning of ‘would’ ‘would’ is. In relation to the past pushes ‘would’ like ‘used to’ in that one before something regularly did what no longer does today.
Adjectives / Adverbs 

The distinction between adjectives and adverbs prepares most people with German language difficulties. In contrast to English can be seen in the German externally no difference between an adjective and an adverb.
Example: He is careful – In this case, an adjective cautious question: how is he?
Answer: carefully.

He drives carefully – in this case, carefully is an adverb.

An adjective (“How-word”) refers to a subject or object: How is he?

An adverb is, however, a word that describes either a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

An adverb is usually distinguished from an adjective by adding the suffix-ly.
He is careful – He is careful (cautious and careful in this case is an adjective)
He drives carefully – He drives carefully (carefully and carefully refers to the verb drive and is therefore an adverb)
He is extremely careful – He is extremely careful (or extremely extremely careful refers to the adjective and is therefore also an adverb cautiously and careful refers to it and is therefore an adjective.)
He drives very carefully – He drives extremely carefully (extremely or extremely refers to the adverb carefully and is therefore also an adverb)

Superlative forms

In the comparative forms of adjectives in English you have to remember two main things.
Adjectives with one syllable increases with the endings-er and-est
Ex: small – smaller – smallest
Adjectives with two syllables,-y,-ow, he ends,-le, you usually also increases with the endings-er and-est.
Example: happy – happier – happiest / narrow – narrower – Narrowest
All other adjectives with two syllables and adjectives with three or more syllables is increased with more and most.
Ex: beautiful – more beautiful – most beautiful