English speaking lesson 26

Direct and indirect speech

Direct and indirect speech


Direct and indirect speech are two different ways of reporting what someone said or thought. Direct speech reports the exact words spoken, while indirect speech reports what was said or thought but does not use the exact words. Here are some important rules and examples of direct and indirect speech in English:

  1. Direct speech is reported using quotation marks, while indirect speech is not.

Example: “I love pizza,” said John. (direct speech)

John said he loved pizza. (indirect speech)

  1. In indirect speech, the verb tense and pronoun may need to change to reflect the change from first to third person.

Example: “I am happy,” said Susan. (direct speech)

Susan said she was happy. (indirect speech)

  1. The word “that” is often used in indirect speech to introduce the reported speech.

Example: “I will be there on time,” said Tom. (direct speech)

Tom said that he would be there on time. (indirect speech)

  1. The word “to” can be used to report an order or request.

Example: “Shut the door,” said the teacher. (direct speech)

The teacher told us to shut the door. (indirect speech)

  1. When reporting questions, the word order may need to change, and the verb “asked” is often used.

Example: “Where are you going?” asked Sarah. (direct speech)

Sarah asked where we were going. (indirect speech)

In conclusion, direct and indirect speech are important aspects of English grammar used to report what someone said or thought. By understanding the rules and examples of direct and indirect speech, you can improve your English writing and communication skills.

Change of Person

  1. He says, “I am writing a book.” (Direct Speech)
    He says that he is writing a book. (Indirect Speech)
  2. They say,”we don’t want any more.” (Direct Speech)
    They say that they don’t want any more. (Indirect Speech)
  3. She says to me, “You write a letter.” (Direct Speech)
    She tells me that I write a letter. (Indirect Speech)
  4. Rahim says to Karim, “You are my friend.” (Direct Speech)
    Rahim tells Karim that he (Karim) is his friend. (Indirect Speech)

Dic & Ind 04

  1. Ramzan says “He is my friend.”  (Direct Speech)
    Ramzan says that he is his(Ramzan) friend. (Indirect Speech)

Dic & Ind 05

Change to Tense

Dic & Ind 6

  1. Zeenat will say,”I see a picture.” (Direct Speech)
    Zeenat will say that she sees a picture. (Indirect Speech)
  2. Husna says, “I love my childern.” (Direct Speech)
    Husna says that she loves her childern. (Indirect Speech)

Dic & Ind 7

Will Changes into Would
Shall Changes into Should/Would
May Changes into Might
Can Changes into Could
Do/Does       Changes into Did
Today Changes into That day
Tonight Changes into That night
Last night Changes into The previous night
Hence    Changes into Thence
Next day Changes into The following day
This Changes into That
Now Changes into Then
These Changes into Those
Here Changes into There
Thus Changes into To
Tomorrow Changes into The next day
Yesterday Changes into The previous day
Ago Changes into Before
Hither Changes into Thither
Just Changes into Then

Dic & Ind 8

  1. The teacher said, “Honesty is the best policy.” (Direct Speech)
    The teacher said that honesty is the best policy. (Indirect Speech) (Universal Truth)
  2. The guide said, “Red Fort was built by shahjahan.” (Direct Speech)
    The guide said that Red Fort was built by shahjahan. (Indirect Speech) (Historical Fact)

Interrogative sentences

Dic & Ind 9

  1. He said to me, “Can you help me?” (Direct Speech)
    He asked me if I could help him. (Indirect Speech)

Dic & Ind 0010

  1. Zahid said to me, “What is your name?” (Direct Speech)
    Zahid asked me what my name was.  (Indirect Speech)

Imperative Sentences

Dic & Ind 11

  1. He said to me, “Bring me a glass of water.”(Direct Speech)
    He ordered me to bring him a glass of water. (Indirect Speech)
  2. Zahid said to me, “Please help me.”(Direct Speech)
    Zahid requested me to help him(Zahid).(Indirect Speech)
  3. Razia said to me, “Do not go there.” (Direct Speech)
    Razia forbade me to go there. (Indirect Speech)

Dic & Ind 12

  1. He said to me, “Let us take some rest.” (Direct Speech)
    He proposed to me that we should take some rest. (Indirect Speech)

 Optative Sentences

Dic & Ind 13

  1. She said, “O for a glass of water!” (Direct Speech)
    She wished for a glass of water. (Indirect Speech)
  2. He said to Zakir, “May Allah grant you long life!” (Direct Speech)
    He Prayed that Allah might grant Zakir long life. (Indirect Speech)

Exclamatory Sentences

Dic & Ind 14

  1. They said , “Hurrah! we have won the match.” (Direct Speech)
    The exclaimed with joy that they had won the match. (Indirect Speech)
  2. She said, “Alas! my only son is dead.” (Direct Speech)
    She exclaimed with sorrow that her only son was dead. (Indirect Speech)
  3. He said to them, “Bravo! well done.” (Direct Speech)
    He applauded them saying  that they had done well. (Indirect Speech)